Biomarcadores da tuberculose: uma revisão da literatura.

  • William Machado de SOUZA UniRitter
  • Djuli Milene HERMES UniRitter
Palavras-chave: biomarcadores, diagnóstico, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, soro

Resumo

A tuberculose é uma infecção micobacteriana comumente causada pelo agente etiológico Mycobacterium tuberculosis, podendo também ser desencadeada por outras bactérias do gênero Mycobacterium. Ainda que bem documentada, mais de um século após sua descoberta, situa-se como a doença infecciosa que mais mata no mundo. Configura-se também problema socioeconômico importante, atingindo em especial as camadas mais pobres da população e comprometendo seriamente sua capacidade produtiva. Os métodos diagnósticos tradicionais para a doença consistem da baciloscopia e cultura, recentemente adotando os testes moleculares rápidos, todos com limitações significativas, como a incapacidade de discriminar entre casos de tuberculose ativa e latente, sensibilidade inconsistente e incapacidade de oferecer prognósticos. A presente revisão da literatura procurou elucidar os atuais avanços na pesquisa de biomarcadores da infecção nos últimos 5 anos com o emprego da metodologia ELISA. Foram verificadas e comparadas evidências apresentadas pelos estudos e as performances diagnósticas alcançadas em cada contexto. Constatou-se uma evidente heterogeneidade nas respostas imunológicas entre populações e indivíduos, provável fruto da diversidade genética do patógeno que possui linhagens intercontinentais e regionais, bem como diferenças particulares nas expressões de alguns biomarcadores, seja por variáveis genéticas ou mesmo outras doenças de base; a homologia dos antígenos pesquisados com outras espécies de bactérias também foi uma problemática. Fica claro que questões genéticas particulares de populações e do próprio agente infeccioso precisam ser melhor consideradas nesses estudos, a fim de alcançar um perfil sorológico suficientemente sensível e específico para triagem clínica e diagnóstico destes pacientes.

Biografia do Autor

William Machado de SOUZA, UniRitter

Acadêmico do curso de Biomedicina do Centro Universitário Ritter dos Reis – UniRitter

Djuli Milene HERMES, UniRitter
Mestre em Medicina (UFRGS), especialista em Microbiologia Clínica (FEEVALE), Bacharel em Biomedicina (ULBRA), Docente do Centro Universitário Ritter dos Reis - UniRitter

Mestre em Medicina (UFRGS),

especialista em Microbiologia Clínica

(FEEVALE),

Bacharel em Biomedicina (ULBRA),

Docente do Centro Universitário Ritter

dos Reis

-

UniRitter

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Publicado
2019-04-16
Como Citar
SOUZA, W. M. de, & HERMES, D. M. (2019). Biomarcadores da tuberculose: uma revisão da literatura. Revista Eletrônica Científica Da UERGS , 5(1), 28-47. https://doi.org/10.21674/2448-0479.51.28-47
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