A review between whole-cells and immobilized lipases technologies for biodiesel and flavor esters production

Palavras-chave: Enzima, Lipases, Imobilização, Biocatalisadores de células íntegras, Síntese de biodiesel, Ésteres de sabor

Resumo

 Lipases are versatile enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions which allow their applications in various areas of the industry. However, biocatalysis faces an economical obstacle to be able to compete with conventional routes. Different strategies have been studied aiming to reduce the biocatalysts cost and to improve their catalytic activity and stability. Enzymatic immobilization is one of the most efficient strategies for making the enzyme application competitive on a large industrial scale, providing their continuous reuse, ease of separation of the reactional medium and higher process efficiency. Nevertheless, despite the technological advances achieved, biocatalysts are still costly for industrial uses due to enzyme recovery, purification, and immobilization steps. In this context comes the whole cells (WC) technology as a form of immobilization in which the cells themselves, usually grown on a support, are applied in the biotransformation process, containing the proteins of interest adhered to their surface, allowing easy separation, reuse and dispensing the purification step. Although whole cells technology has become a valuable tool for many biotransformation processes, there are some inherent drawnbacks associated that hindered its advance in industrial scale, and many studies have been performed aiming to optimize their performance. This paper presents a review between whole cells and immobilized lipases technologies, mainly related to biodiesel and flavor esters synthesis, since these are largely reported in literature.

Keywords: Enzyme. Lipases. Immobilization. Whole cells biocatalysts. Biodiesel synthesis. Flavor esters.

Uma revisão entre tecnologias de células íntegras e lipases imobilizadas para produção de biodiesel e ésteres de sabor

As lipases são enzimas versáteis que catalisam diversas reações e podem ser aplicadas em várias áreas da indústria. No entanto, a biocatálise enfrenta um obstáculo econômico para poder competir com as rotas convencionais. Diferentes estratégias têm sido estudadas com o objetivo de reduzir o custo dos biocatalisadores e melhorar a atividade e estabilidade catalítica. A imobilização enzimática é uma das estratégias mais eficientes para tornar a aplicação de enzimas competitiva em larga escala industrial, proporcionando reutilização contínua, facilidade de separação do meio reacional e maior eficiência do processo. No entanto, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos alcançados, os biocatalisadores ainda são caros para usos industriais devido às etapas de recuperação, purificação e imobilização de enzimas. Nesse contexto, surge a tecnologia de células integras (CI) como uma forma de imobilização, na qual as próprias células, geralmente cultivadas em um suporte, são aplicadas no processo de biotransformação, contendo as proteínas de interesse aderidas à sua superfície, permitindo fácil separação, reutilização e dispensando a etapa de purificação. Embora a tecnologia de células inteiras tenha se tornado uma ferramenta valiosa para muitos processos de biotransformação, existem alguns inconvenientes inerentes, que impediram seu avanço em escala industrial, e muitos estudos foram realizados com o objetivo de otimizar seu desempenho. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão entre as tecnologias de células íntegras e de lipases imobilizadas, principalmente relacionadas às sínteses de biodiesel e de ésteres de sabor, uma vez que estas são amplamente relatadas na literatura.

Palavras-chave: Enzima. Lipases. Imobilização. Biocatalisadores de células íntegras. Síntese de biodiesel. Ésteres de sabor.

Resumen

Una revisión entre las tecnologías de células enteras y lipasas inmovilizadas para la producción de biodiésel y ésteres de sabor

Las lipasas son enzimas versátiles que catalizan diversas reacciones que permiten su aplicación en diversas áreas de la industria. Sin embargo, la biocatálisis se enfrenta a un obstáculo económico para poder competir con las rutas convencionales. Se han estudiado diferentes estrategias con el objetivo de reducir el costo de los biocatalizadores y mejorar su actividad catalítica y estabilidad. La inmovilización enzimática es una de las estrategias más eficientes para hacer que la aplicación de enzimas sea competitiva en gran escala industrial, proporcionando su reutilización continua, facilidad de separación del medio de reacción y mayor eficiencia del proceso. Sin embargo, a pesar de los avances tecnológicos logrados, los biocatalizadores siguen siendo costosos para usos industriales debido a los pasos de recuperación, purificación e inmovilización de enzimas. En este contexto, surge la tecnología de células enteras (WC) como una forma de inmovilización en la que las propias células, generalmente cultivadas sobre un soporte, se aplican en el proceso de biotransformación, conteniendo las proteínas de interés adheridas  su superficie, permitiendo una fácil separación, reutilización y dispensar la etapa de purificación. Mismo que la tecnología de células enteras se ha convertido en una herramienta valiosa para muchos procesos de biotransformación, existen algunos inconvenientes inherentes asociados que afectaron su avance a escala industrial, y se han realizado muchos estudios con el objetivo de optimizar su desempeño. Este artículo presenta una revisión entre las tecnologías de células enteras y lipasas inmovilizadas, principalmente relacionadas con la síntesis de biodiesel y ésteres de sabor, ya que estos están ampliamente reportados en la literatura.

Palabras clave: Enzima. Lipasas. Inmovilización. Biocatalizadores de células enteras. Síntesis de biodiesel. Ésteres aromatizantes.

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Biografia do Autor

Rodrigo Sardagna, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do SUL (UERGS)
William Lopes, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)
Lúcia Allebrandt da Silva Ries, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do SUL (UERGS)

Referências

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Publicado
2021-04-22
Como Citar
Sardagna, R., Lopes, W., & Allebrandt da Silva Ries, L. (2021). A review between whole-cells and immobilized lipases technologies for biodiesel and flavor esters production. Revista Eletrônica Científica Da UERGS , 7(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.21674/2448-0479.71.1-18
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ARTIGOS DE REVISÃO